The basics of IPV6 addresses: Global

Certification: Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching - Cisco Certified Network Associate Routing and Switching

The internet protocol version 6 is mainly used in the identification of a network interface in all computers and originally, IPv6 was registered in Domain Name system but later on it was transferred and is now done by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), IESG and the Internet Architecture Board. The IPv6 address has a very large address space of about 128 bits compared to the IPv4 and because of this it is identified as a global address.

Purpose for development

The fact that it uniquely identifies the network interface of any host as a result it locates the host into a network bringing about routing of most of the IP packets. When it comes to routing IPv6 address serves as a destination for a targeted packet.

Classes of IPv6 addresses

There are three main classes namely unicast address, anycast address and the multicast address. Their main purpose is identification of network interfaces but they differ a little bit.

Unicast address

This address identifies a single network interface in such a way that the internet protocol only delivers the packets that are sent to one address and its address format has two logical parts whose size is 64 bits. The first part is the network prefix commonly referred to as the identifier that is used for routing and the second part is the host. These two depend on each other in order function appropriately. The host is usually generated on its own while in other circumstances from the MAC address which is obtained from a DHCPv6 server.

Anycast address

It is common in group interfaces that belong mostly to different nodes. In this case, a packet that is sent to this address is delivered to only one of the interfaces in the group which is commonly a host that is closer to a particular packet. The problem with this address is that it cannot be easily identified from a unicast address because they tend to work in a similar manner. In other words any unicast address can be employed and later on identified as an anycast address. Its format is similar to that of the unicast address and the routing varies in sizes whereby a larger routing service results into smaller subnet and vice versa.

Multicast address

This kind of address is applicable in multiple hosts where through participation of multiple routers of network, the packets are able to be sent to multi cast address. In this case once the packet is sent all the hosts within the multiple addresses are received at an instant. IPv6 works in this way before the packet is sent to multiple addresses it releases certain protocols that have multiple links which are local and as a result there is avoidance of any kind of disturbance that may be directed to any of the available interfaces.

Multicast address format

Depends on the rules of formatting that have been designed and also relies on a specific application. One amazing thing about its prefix is that it has a binary value of 1 eight times and is used by all the multicast addresses. The only exception of this fact applies in special multicast address an example being the Solicited node.

Presentation of the IPv6 address

This address is represented mainly in eight groups each having four digits with a size of 16 bits. They are usually separated by a colon and another main thing is that they are usually case insensitive hence requires advanced techniques when it comes to their interpretation. One of the most common techniques used is the elimination of parts that appear to be common for example one can eliminate a group of zeros and then replace them with a colon or the first group of zeros that are considered as leaders are eliminated. IETF recommends the use of lower case letters since they are quite easy to interpret and they also bring about flexibility in their presentation.

In addition IPv6 addresses are presented in block form with a size that is measured as a power of two and gives results that are purely contagious and this can be interpreted as follows, if the first address is identified, there will be a small network that will match with a large address and vice versa. This address is also used different names and scopes and in this case its identification is usually in form of square brackets that are enclosed.

In scope the address is used as an identification of a specific type of network and where it is literally valid. The benefit of having a scope in the address is the ability to be able to connect directly anywhere and anytime. Generally the scope identified in the unicast and anycast address is usually similar but in the multicast address there are different types of scopes for example; interface local, global, reversed, site local and link local.

Special IPv6 addresses

There are different kinds of the IPv6 address that work in a far much special way

  • Unspecified address that is usually used in the software since all the bits are presented by zeros
  • Local addresses
  • Special purpose addresses
  • Documentation
  • Unique local addresses

IPv6 address is also important in the detection of duplicate addresses and this detection is done mainly using the unicast address which also works side by side with a special type of multicast address known as the solicited node. Once a tentative address has been identified the process of tracking down the duplicate address is completed. All the IPv6 addresses have a fixed lifetime provided that they have an appropriate interface and this improves further because they can have an infinite lifespan if the interface is perfectly designed and serves all its required purpose in relation to the IPv6 address.

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